The gender perspective is crucial to perceive key, but often hidden or overlooked, aspects of inequalities and better help combat xenophobia, intolerance and social exclusion. […] Smart, sustainable and inclusive growth is not possible without specifically addressing gender inequalities in different segments of society […] It is important to track and remove persisting obstacles, which block women from equal access to employment, goods and services such as education, healthcare, housing, digital resources, public services and leisure. These obstacles should be analysed with other factors such as age, family status, domestic and care tasks, income level, leisure opportunities, religion and culture. [….] The gender dimension should be an integral part of the measurement of the impacts of policies. [… ] Innovative approaches to public governance must include gender equality as a tool for increasing participation and civic engagement. When building up a new generation of public services, gender equality should be a major issue representing diversity. […] Education and skills, as crucial areas of co-creation, should be prioritized including by combating stereotypes in elementary and secondary education, as well as an introduction to gender studies at tertiary level.

The changing nature of the European labour market, the increasing migration of citizens across Europe and the growing inequalities and casualization in work all demand a detailed analysis using a gender dimension. […] Projects should not only investigate the [gendered] barriers, but also what would enable access to work that offers a fair level of security.

Research should also address the role gender plays in the constitution of the "new economy". The rise of alternative economies based on sharing and cooperation instead of individual ownership and competition results in major re-configurations of the distinction between public and private domains.[…] Re-privatization of welfare arrangements has resulted in new burdens for women as traditional caregivers. It is also crucial to carry on research on the gendered division of work in the new privately organized living arrangements (as alternatives for institutional care, such as cooperative living homes for the elderly, among others).Source: H2020-AG-GENDER (2015), pp. 9-11

Unpaid care work

Unpaid care work is both an important aspect of economic activity and an indispensable factor contributing to the well-being of individuals, their families and societies (Stiglitz et al., 2007). Every day individuals spend time cooking, cleaning and caring for children, the ill and the elderly. Despite this importance for well-being, unpaid care work is commonly left out of policy agendas due to a common misperception that, unlike standard market work measures, it is too difficult to measure and less relevant for policies. Yet, neglecting unpaid care work leads to incorrect inferences about levels and changes in individuals’ well-being and the value of time, which in turn limit policy effectiveness across a range of socio-economic areas, notably gender inequalities in employment and other empowerment areas.

Women typically spend disproportionately more time on unpaid care work than men. On account of gendered social norms that view unpaid care work as a female prerogative, women across different regions, socio-economic classes and cultures spend an important part of their day on meeting the expectations of their domestic and reproductive roles. This is in addition to their paid activities, thus creating the “double burden” of work for women. How society and policy makers address issues concerning care has important implications for the achievement of gender equality: they can either expand the capabilities and choices of women and men, or confine women to traditional roles associated with femininity and motherhood (Razavi, 2007). The unequal distribution of unpaid care work between women and men represents an infringement of women’s rights (UN, 2013) and also a brake on their economic empowerment.